Coercive sterilizations and castration are at the extreme end of a spectrum that also includes criminal sanctions for drug use during pregnancy and barring LBGT individuals from in-vitro fertilization services and adoption, as well as a host of other policies geared at making pregnancy and parenting difficult for those deemed unworthy.
Aboriginal sex workers are subject to dual discrimination, experience high rates of violence, including murder, and high rates of HIV among other outcomes associated with violations of their human rights.
Most Latin American countries do not explicitly acknowledge sexual and reproductive rights in their Constitutions. But some Constitutional Courts have still been able to find protection for legal abortion and other reproductive health issues.
For indigenous women in the Andean and Amazonian areas of Peru, giving birth at health care facilities, in the presence of strangers and lying down, is unbearable. New standards in health care delivery better respect their rights and traditions.