In India, HIV Destigmatization Desperately Needed


A couple, in the northern state of India (Uttar Pradesh), adopted a three-day-old abandoned girl – a rarity in a country which with its regional neighbor (China) is gaining the ignominy of a nation where female infants are increasing abandoned by their parents or selectively aborted for want of a male child. But the real tragedy was to follow when the couple ‘returned' the child to the authorities after a medical examination found the AIDS-causing HIV virus in her. In all probability the baby girl was abandoned in the first place for the same reasons. Orphans of infected parents are often abandoned by the extended family and end up on the streets, open to all kinds of exploitation.

And that sums up the condition of children of positive parents irrespective of the fact whether they carry the virus or not. Children of HIV-positive parents (and often not positive themselves) are thrown out of schools across the country by uninformed and insensitive teachers and parents alike. With the state's machinery failing in raising awareness, parents conceal the positive status of their children not just out of fear of being thrown out of the school but also due to fear of the discrimination and taunts. Most positive children manage to attend school only by hiding their status. Yet the irony is that while this might enable them to gain admission and remain in school, it keeps them from receiving special measures that better protect their own health and in the long run, will prevent them from dropping out. Besides, sick parents not only are ill-equipped to be care providers for their children but it also means a loss of income and children, especially girls, are pulled out of schools to play the role of care givers and, in many cases, wage earners.

The teachers interestingly have been in the forefront of most of the sex education protests in the country. Unwilling to teach the course in the classrooms, these educators, wanting nothing to do with this curriculum – which in its own handicapped way attempted to create some sort of an awareness on the virus and other issues of sexual and reproductive health – have really been the major violators in this context. Books were burnt and with it the hopes of any space for awareness programs for young adults. Moreover, so great is the stigma attached to HIV/AIDS that many teachers who have participated and conducted the adolescent awareness program earned the epithet of the "AIDS teacher."

The good news is that the United Nations recently cut its earlier estimate of the number of people infected with the virus dramatically by more than six million, bringing down HIV cases around the globe from 39.5 million to 33.2 million.

The bad news is that the decline is mostly on paper. Much of the drop is due to revised numbers from India – which earlier this year slashed its numbers by half (from about 6 million to about 3 million) – and to new data from several countries in sub-Saharan Africa. With earlier surveys highly reliant on certain high-risk groups like drug users, sex workers and infected pregnant women at clinics, these were numbers contested by various groups in the country among them being the religious groups supported by the extreme right. The new numbers are the result of a new methodology like data gathered from household surveys rather from than blood samples taken at health clinics. Though expensive, household surveys reach remote rural areas and represent the general population better while samples at clinics tend to over-represent pregnant women who have been prone to infections at a disproportionately high rate. Yet again, like the problem with the earlier method, the household surveys tend to miss high-risk groups such as prostitutes, homosexuals and intravenous drug users.

But what really makes the situation look bleaker is that it vindicates those who for long have accused the UN of deliberately inflating figures worldwide to make the epidemic appear more widespread than in order to appeal to donor nations for more financial support. But in countries like India that's not all that there is to it. This poses a very serious challenge to the entire campaign to contain AIDS in the country considering that many of the strategies were hinged on providing awareness on safe sex and condoms. Condoms for long, in particular for the extreme right and religious based groups, have been the peg to attack the AIDS campaign as a western construct and not conducive to the Indian culture. And the accusation of falsely inflated AIDS cases to push their own propaganda have been one of the very strong and oft used arguments by these same groups constantly attempting to negate the HIV epidemic. This new information on the actual error in numbers is bound to put the spanner in the work of many groups who have had to constantly work against the tide to bring about some very real changes in the attitudes towards AIDS.

The truth is that even with the revised figures the numbers are still on the high side. Worldwide, 6,800 people are newly infected and another 5,700 die each day. Three million people in the country still carry the scars of the virus socially, economically and physically.

With both national and global agendas constantly changing the money coming in towards these strategies also changes and the real fear that remains is that will this automatically also mean a re-allocation of funds meant towards containing and working towards healthier and longer live strategies for positive persons and their families. Will donors see these new estimates as reason to relax their response on AIDS? That would be a tragedy far more disproportionate to the error in the data on positive people.

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  • harry834

    I'm Sri Lankan, and I'm happy you've written this article about the stigma from extremists within India. It's terrible that many good people buy into their worldview. What ways are there to support sex education in India?

  • deepali-gaur-singh

    I would look to a solution that involves the communities as a whole because while universally applying it through text books for school-going children is a good start but a very large percentage of the population is illiterate and a substantial part of the children do not have the opportunity to attend schools. Of those who do manage many start dropping out at middle school (because they are considered old enough to earn for he families or old enough to be married off in many cases) and this is roughly the time when sex education has been introduced in school textbooks. So again while it would work much better in urban India as a strategy (and across cultures and societies like India) semi-urban and rural India would require another set of tools. Groups working with adolescents on issues of HIV, sexuality and reproductive and sexual health and spreading awareness through campaigns that are more accessible to populations in such parts of the country would be a better, though slower, process.

  • harry834

    I will bookmark this

  • invalid-0

    Look there are 2 more URLs

    There are lot of truth in this.

    I dont know why Americans do need to spend money and research for a simple thing which very early indians have been following ….

    1. For your question on child marriage… But change your question… marriage before 16 is almost very rare now.

    There are things which our body naturally needs. One may say i can control my feeligs for my studies or work. But some way it will come out. It might result in some problems. So only in India do marriages early.

    One side-effect example is. Almost any children born in the last generation are through Normal Delivery. But now almost many are C-Section even there are 1000s of technology…

    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/11/071112140723.htm

    2. Why mother should be always with a child more than the father?. This is purely for children goodness. Money can solve problems(sometimes may also fail) but women always with the children can prevent the problems itself.

    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/09/020911073512.htm

    As a Association in America, you should be doing the following

    1. Ban immediately which affects the morality and health of the children.
    2. Strict lessons on Moral science in schools.

    You also know that Sexually inducing films are one of the main reasons of problems for many things.
    For ex. If there is a leak of poisonous gas which kils many people, will you be providing only masks to the people rather than fixing the leak, saying that there are many ways people are dying, so need not of fixing the leak.

  • invalid-0

    Mr Sathish Kumar it seems now you have even started supporting child marriages im amazed that you have an illogical logic for everything.
    Anyway check this link hope it answers all your questions:

    http://www.deccanherald.com/Content/Dec252007/foreign2007122442981.asp

    Sex education seems to be working: Study
    Study sample

    The new study looked at a sample of 2,019 teenagers ages 15 to 19 years, who responded to a survey during a 2002 study.

    STUDY RESULTS

    *Boys who received sex education in school were 71 per cent less likely to have physical relationship.
    *59 percent girls were less likely to have physical
    relationship before age 15.
    *Males were 2.77 times more likely to rely upon birth control the first time they had sex.
    *Sex education reduced by 91 percent the risk that African-American females in school would have sex before age 15.

    I think its better to ignore you after this because you are becoming progressively more illogical